The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles is one of the four Macedonian tombs of Lefkadia, built along the ancient road connecting the town of Mieza with Pella, the capital of the Macedonian Kingdom. The pottery discovered inside the tomb and the prosopography of the deceased indicate a date from the late third to the middle of the second centuries BC. Although the smallest tomb of the group, it is distinguished by its ornate interior. The tomb belonged to the family of Aristophanes, of which five generations were buried here. Their names are inscribed inside the rectangular niches set in two superimposed rows along the walls.
The tomb consists of a narrow ante-chamber and a rectangular burial chamber oriented north-south. The burial chamber was entered from the south through a double door. The ante-chamber has a flat ceiling and its walls have painted representations of a sprinkler and an altar. Over the door leading into the burial chamber are the names of the first two deceased, Lyson and Kallikles sons of Aristophanes. The burial chamber has twenty-two niches, of which seventeen received the ashes and grave gifts of deceased members of the family. The trompe-l'oeil Ionic antae give the impression of a true peristyle inside a garden. A continuous garland of leaves, pomegranates and ribbons crowns the peristyle, while the tympana on the short sides have paintings of weapons like those often placed as grave gifts - helmets, swords and two different types of Macedonian shields. The vividness of the colours and good state of preservation of the wall-paintings are due to the fact that the earthen tumulus covering the tomb was not removed after the monument's discovery, thus keeping the temperature and humidity inside the tomb stable. The stylistic similarities between the paintings of this tomb and the Second Pompeian Style indicate the close contacts between Hellenistic Greece and Republican Rome; this particular style (dubbed 'Architectural Style' by the archaeologist Stella Miller) may be the beginning or may have inspired the Second Pompeian Style.
The tomb was discovered by chance in 1942 and was excavated by Charalambos Makaronas who published a brief report. It was fully studied by Stella Miller. The monument is closed to the public in order to preserve the stable conditions which allowed for its remarkable preservation. A metal shelter was built over the tomb in 1999 for additional protection.
The new museum in Pella was built in 2006-2009. The construction and the organization of the presentation was done with the support of the Third Community Support Framework.
It is situated at the southeast foot of the hill where the palace of the Macedonian dynasty was, northeast of the archaeological site. The building has a rectangular atrium, as a reference to the central peristyle courtyard of ancient houses in Pella.
In the information section, texts, photographs, maps, drawings a model of the archaeological site and a short video, give the information for Pella to the visitors. In the entrance there are two important exhibits. A head considered a portrait of Alexander the Great and a statuette with the characteristic attributes of the god Pan.
The daily life of Pella is the first thematic group of exhibition. The most important exhibits are the mosaic floors from the Houses of Dionysus, and of the Abduction of Helen from the House of the Wall Plasters. The excavation finds give a lot of information for the daily life (restoration of furniture and models, cloths, etc.)
The second the mating grouping is the public life in Pella. The finds are coming from the excavations in Agora and are connected with the administration (coins, inscriptions, sculpture), the production and commerce (vases for transporting wines terracotta figurines, equipment from pottery).
The third thematic grouping consists of mosaics from Pella ' s sanctuaries (the sanctuaries of Darron, the Mother of Gods and Aphrodite, the Thesmophorion), and other findings as inscriptions, vases, metal objects.
The fourth thematic grouping is the findings from the city's cemeteries. There are burials from the Bronze age, the Iron Age, Geometric and Archaic periods (9th-6th BC centuries), the Classical era (5th-4th BC centuries), and the Hellenistic period (3rd, 2nd BC centuries). The findings give information for the language of the residents (Doric Greek language), the funeral customs etc.
The last grouping is the palace gallery. There are information for the architectural form of the palace, the life and personality of Alexander the Great.
The building of the Military Station (Station Militaire) of the Railroad company «Jonction - Salonique - Constantinople» at Thessaloniki.
Is located at the west side of Thessaloniki approxamately 500 meters after the overpass bridge of Monastiriou road to the exit of the city, between main rail lines emanating from the New Railroad Station and convent within the administrative boundaries of the Municipality of Kordelio - Evosmos.
The building had been constructed at the end of the 19th century (in particular from 1891 until 1894) when the city was part of the Ottoman Empire. It had been designed by the Italian architect Pierro Arigoni who had also designed the Casa Bianca building during 1911.
On the West Coast of the Thermaic Gulf, one kilometer to the south of Makrigialos you can find the ruins of the Byzantine Castle of the Bishop of Kitros. These ruins, together with the western gate of the Castle (opposite the Church), the foundations of an inn, baths and a small single chamber temple were uncovered during the period 1983 - 1992 whilst the site was being excavated by the Society of Byzantine Antiquities of Thessaloniki. These are the only visible remains left today of Byzantine Pydna, which was renamed Kitros in the 6th or 7th and century and was, until the 14th century, the most important city in medieval Pieria.
Inside the Castle two old Christian Basilicas dating from the 4th and 6th century are located, the last of which was destroyed in the Bulgarian occupation of the fortress, an event which took place from 913 - 924. At the end of the 10th century a large scale Church was built with a dome and cloister, 23.20 m. by 16.60 m., decorated with mosaics, wall paintings and some remarkable sculptures, and this must have been the Cathedral Church of Kitros.
Kitros was the seat of the local administrator (an administrative sub-division of the Byzantine Empire) answerable to the regional administration in Veria, and during the 11th and 12th century was the center of production for tiles and also a busy trading port. Evidence for this has been provided by the uncovering of a ceramic factory complete with furnace and a 12th century inn, along with its baths, in the port area. Pydna's commanding position came to an end with the arrival of the Franks in 1204, as can be seen from the objects unearthed from in front of the Castle showing the effects of the siege and the burning and plundering of the entire habitation.
After the burning of the Cathedral the community built two small single room shrines in the area near the port, next to the inn. Outside and roundabout the area a cemetery containing graves and tombs with tiled roofs have been dug up. In 1343, during the civil war between Ioannis Palaeologos and the claimant to the throne, Ioannis Kantakouzinos, the castle was besieged and captured by the soldiers of the rightful Emperor Ioannis Apokafko, and in the autumn of the same year by the Turkish Admiral, Amour.
At the end of the 15th century the site was abandoned because of continual attacks by pirates, and the inhabitants moved to the site of present day Kitros.
In the land of Alexander the Great.
Set out on a magical journey through time to the glorious kingdom of ancient Macedonia, where Alexander the Great was born. Peer into the rich history of the Macedonian state capital, a bustling metropolis of the Classical period. A number of excavations of the site reveal the ancient city’s majestic grandeur.
Visit the monumental palatial complex that occupies the northernmost hill of the city, and covers an area of 60.000 m2. Wander around the city’s commercial and manufacturing centre, the so-called agora (ayorá), which was in fact the biggest agora of the ancient world. This huge building complex of 70.000m2 included shops, workshops, administration offices, and the repository of the city’s historical records. The main avenue of agora was actually connected with the city’s port, the ruins of which are still visible today.
The ancient agora is constructed according to the famous urban planning of Hippodamus (Hippodamian grid plan): well-defined city blocks, paved streets with sidewalks, and elaborate water supply and sewage systems. They all illustrate Pella’s modern infrastructure and sophisticated urban design. The two-storey private housesbuilt in Doric and Ionic style brings to mind images of a prosperous, ancient, city.
You will certainly be impressed by the outstanding mosaic floors that used to decorate the city's grand mansions – the most famous are the ones depicting the Abduction of Helen, Rapture, the Amazonomachy (the battle of Amazons), and the Deer Hunt. You can marvel at these decorated floors (considered the most important group of mosaics in Macedonia) at the New Archaeological Museum of Pella.
E. Heuzen and N.Hammond posit that this was the site of the Battle of Pydna (168 B.C.), the outcome of which being the subjugation of the Macedonians to the Roman Empire.
The ruins of a Bishop's Palace from the 5th-6th C. was found to the east of the railway line from Thessaloniki to Athens.
A square tower, 80x90 m. was found situated on the Ancient Road from Pydna to Dion. The area was built on a plan which included four fortified towers, within the confines of which a 3 chambered Basilica and a Bishop's Palace, bounded by a covered aisle have been found.
The foundations of the buildings from 479 AD are probably those of the seat of the Bishop of Pydna.
The Bishop's Palace was built on the ruins of the 2nd century baths, a mosaic floor having been found beneath its floor, and to the East of the Palace is a villa with mosaic floors dating from the time of Konstantinou and the foundations of a building which were probably those of the local tax collector's offices.
The plan with four towers remained until the time of Justinian, when its fortified character changed due to the enlargement of the warehouses and workshops for the production of wine and olive oil. It was destroyed by an earthquake in the middle of the 6th Century, after which the church was rebuilt on the central slope, the previous building area being converted into a cemetery.
The town must have been abandoned during the Bulgarian invasion at the end of the 9th Century. Today's visitor can see three of the towers, the Bishops Palace, the mosaic floors of the 4th C villa, the tombs, the springs, the ovens for baking the tiles and those in which glass was fired.
On the discovery of the Royal Tombs of Vergina (Aigai) in 1977, an immediate programme was launched to preserve the magnificent murals which adorned them. At the same time a conservation laboratory was set up on the spot to save and restore the extremely important portable objects they contained. For the preservation of the Royal Tombs themselves a subterranean structure was built in 1993 to encase and protect the ancient monuments by maintaining a constant temperature and humidity, both indispensable for the preservation of the wall paintings.
Externally the structure has the appearance of an earth mound; inside it are the treasures found in the Royal Tombs, which have been on exhibition since November 1997.
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Special ticket package: Full: €8, Reduced: €4
Valid for: Aigai, Building for the protection of the royal tombs of Vergina
The Museum of the Macedonian Struggle has perhaps the richest of all collections of relics and documents from the period of the Macedonian Struggle. Some of these items form part of the Museum's permanent collection, while others remain in the Research Centre for Macedonian History and Documentation (KEMIT) or in store for use after the reconfiguration of the Museum's exhibition space.
Museum for the Macedonian Struggle 23 Proxenou Koromila, GR 54622, Thessaloniki, Greece
We welcome you to visit the Museum. Immense yourself in the stories that it has to tell you, see and listen to how an object can “make” history. In addition, come to experience and enjoy all that a modern museum can offer: educational programs, exhibitions of ancient and modern culture, workshops, academic talks, seminars and recreational activities.
The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki is a space of culture and learning, open for everyone.
6 Manoli Andronikou Street,
PO Box 506 19
Postal Code 540 13, Thessaloniki, Greece
tel. +30 2310 830538
fax. +30 2310 861306
A glimpse of Thessaloniki’s pulsating contemporary culture awaits you at the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, presenting local and international art collections in all forms of art, such as photography, painting, engraving, mixed media and video installations.
The theatre was accidentally discovered in 1992, on a natural slope and it probably belonged to the ancient Macedonian city of Mieza. The cavea has fifteen rows of seats carved in the rock. The scene complex comprises the built proskenion which has a facade with doric semi-columns and the skene which is unfortunately preserved in a poor conndition. Its capacity is estimated at 1,500 people. The theatre was constructed in the late Hellenistic period.
After its accidental discovery, in 1992, the excavation of the monument began and is still conducted by the archaeologists V. Michailidou and V. Allamani.
It is one of the biggest museums in the world for Byzantine heritage, housing an impressive 2900 artifacts of the early Christian period and the middle and late Byzantine period –its permanent exhibition. The museum accommodates temporary exhibitions from all over the world, while continuing to organize a variety of special educational activities.
The exhibition is arranged in chronological order, in three rooms: Room A (vestibule) contains finds of the prehistoric period. Of the most important exhibits are the Neolithic figurines and tools from the settlement at Kolchis (case 1, upper and lower shelf).
Case 2 contains a small collection of fine bronze jewellery dated to the Early Iron Age, from various sites of the Kilkis region. It includes mostly bracelets with many spirals, rings and pendants, the latter presenting a variety of types and shapes, such as anchors, pyxides, birds and vases (upper and lower shelf).
Due to the restricted space of the Museum, in the same room are also exhibited a funerary stele with a relief representation of a rider, part of an Attic sarcophagus with a representation of young men and a horse, and a honorary decree of the city of Morrylos (Ano Apostoloi).
Room B contains excavation finds from the Iron Age cemetery at Old Gynaikokastro, including characteristic urns and grave offerings, weapons, knives, double axes, and jewellery. Reproductions of burials are displayed at the corners of the same room.
Finds of the historic periods, mostly sculpture, vases, jewellery, and objects of everyday life are displayed in Room C. Among the most impressive exhibits are: the kouros of Europos, dated to the end of the 6th century B.C., four statues from the Heroon of Palatiano, dated to the 2nd century A.D., a statue of Dionysos, also from Palatiano, and two statues of Apollo and Aphrodite, from Mikro Dasos and Chorygio, respectively.
Items given by individuals or found during old excavations are exhibited in cases 6 and 7. The centre of Case 6 is occupied by a well preserved Classical helmet with an incised scene of facing lions on the front, while the rest of the items are vases and figurines from various sites.
Case 7 (upper shelf), includes clay, gilt plaques with representations of griffins devouring stags, and many other items, all grave offerings found at Philyria.
Finds from the excavations of Palatiano, mostly objects of everyday life activities, are exhibited in case 8. Impressive among them are the bone spoons, the incised loom-weights, and the terracotta statuettes.
«Just as it is true that the right to develop is identical with the right to eternal youth, so it is true that tomorrow is always shaped using the materials of yesterday. [...] Only then can a civilization have sturdy foundations, when it is rooted in a profound awareness of its past, of its immediate past».
D. Loukopoulos, 1938
The F.E.M.M.-Th. explores and studies the traditional culture of recent times in the region of northern Greece. It gathers, preserves, safeguards and records the material evidence of that past, making it available to the public for purposes of study, instruction and amusement.
The Museum’s collections comprise some 20,000 items of all kinds - associated with agriculture, livestock breeding, fishing, as well as crafts such as weaving, sewing, embroidery, metalwork, carpentry and ceramics. These are artefacts which served man’s basic needs for food, housing and clothing, as well as other items playing a part in his social and spiritual life.
Through knowledge of the society of yesterday the Museum hopes to promote a better understanding today's world. Its role is first and foremost a social one. Through its varied activities (exhibitions, educational programmes, publications and other activities) it communicates with the public and participates in the culture and life of the community.
address: 68 Vas. Olgas Str. Postcode 546 42, Thessaloniki, Greece
phone: 0030/2310830591, 0030/2310889840
fax: 0030/2310844848, 0030/2310886095
every day (excl. Thursday) 9.00-15.00,
Wednesday: 10.00 - 22.00
normal rate: 2€ | half rate: 1€
Official website: http://www.lemmth.gr
The archaeological site of Dion (meaning “the city of Zeus” in Greek) is located in the Pieria region, about 30 minutes from Thessaloniki. It boasts a large temple dedicated to Zeus, a series of other smaller temples and a 2,200 year-old exquisite statue of the Greek goddess Hera. It was in Dion that Alexander the Great assembled his army before he began his conquests to the west.